Here’s a small evolutionary change to the RF12 driver, to squeeze one more drop of power consumption out of it.
This is the code for which I’m trying to optimize power consumption:
The Sleepy::loseSomeTime() call is the big power saver. It puts the ATmega into a total power down mode, except for the watchdog timer, which is used to get it back out of this comatose state. So we’re sleeping for 10 seconds.
Around it are the rf_sleep() calls needed to put the RFM12B into low-power mode as well.
And lastly, the rf12_sendWait(3) call does something pretty nifty: it puts the ATmega into full power down mode between each byte sent to the RFM12B while transmitting. This requires a non-standard fuse setting in the ATmega – it only works with a ceramic resonator or the internal clock oscillator, not with a crystal: wake up out of power down within a few clock cycles.
The most efficient mode turns out to be with the ATmega running at 8 MHz off the internal RC oscillator (which starts up really fast). With default Arduino’ish settings, you have to use mode 2, i.e. a less extreme power down mode so it can wake up fast enough.
Here’s one complete transmission of a 8-byte payload (scope details to follow tomorrow):
Each vertical division is 5 mA current draw (the voltage drop across a 10 Ω series resistor). You can see the ATmega turn on, drawing 5 .. 9 mA, and the RFM12B in transmit mode consuming about 23 mA.
The red line is pretty advanced stuff: it integrates the current over time – which is equivalent to the amount of charge consumed. At the end of the trace, this leads to a result of 7.22 microcoulombs per packet sent. One way to interpret this (thanks, Jörg – see comments), is that you could send one packet per second on an average current of less than 8 µA (hm, I think that should be 80 µA).
The “blips” are when the ATmega wakes up and feeds another byte to the RFM12B. In detail (edited image):
These blips take about 32 µS @ 5 mA, which is what it takes to communicate with the RFM12B on the SPI bus at 2 MHz. The reason is that the RFM12B supports a 2.5 MHz maximum SPI rate (it turns out that this limitation only applies for data read from the RFM12B module).
The blips repeat 18 times, every 162 µS. Why 18? Well, an RF12 data transmission looks as follows:
That’s 9 bytes of overhead, plus the 8 payload bytes, plus a trailing interrupt to shut down the RFM12B once the transmission is over.
For completeness – in case you think I can’t count blips: there’s one more activity peak at the start. That’s the call to rf12_canSend(), to check that the RFM12B is ready to start a transmission (which then takes 250 µs to start).
This is probably the limit of what you can push out of power savings with an ATmega (or ATtiny) and an RFM12B. Well, apart from: 1) sending less data, 2) increasing the transmit data rate, or 3) decreasing transmitter power.
When re-using the same code with “rf12_sendWait(2)” and running with normal fuse settings at 16 MHz using a ceramic resonator, it uses only slightly more charge – 7.70 µC, i.e. 7% more. So while this was a nice exercise, it’s not really a major improvement.
All in the name of nanowatt
yak power s(h)aving…