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Cresta sensor

In Software on Apr 16, 2010 at 00:01

Another day, another sensor:

Dsc 1339

This is a Cresta unit (no serial number on it), with a simple outside temperature sensor (which has been outside for a some time). Here’s the OOK scope fingerprint:

Screen Shot 2010 04 12 at 13.50.25

Here’s the baseline, i.e. the background signal with the sensor switched off:

Screen Shot 2010 04 12 at 14.06.37

Some clear peaks, at values 100, 135, 175, and 195, roughly. These correspond to pulse intervals centered around 400 µs, 570 µs, 890 µs, 1080 µs, respectively.

My hunch is that the 400/570 and 890/1080 pairs are really just the same pulse, skewed by the size of the preceding pulse.

In this case, it turns out that the sensor sends 3 copies of the packet, with a 1..3 counter value inside. Seeing that counter in the raw bits indicates that this sensor is not using Manchester encoding, simply 1 = 1 and 2x 0 = 0:

Screen Shot 2010 04 13 at 20.11.30

I get better results with the sensor at least 1 meter away from the receiver – a very strong signal probably adds extra spikes or shifts pulses too far apart.

Time to write a decoder for this thing:

Screen Shot 2010 04 13 at 20.15.06

With the base unit turned on to see what the values being reported are, I was again able to determine the basic details of the packet layout. Each 8-bit byte is followed by a 9-th parity bit. So this hex data isn’t as easy to read:

Screen Shot 2010 04 13 at 20.18.56

But the expected temperature values are in there, and the 1..3 channel selection is as well. Again, I’ll save the checksum verification and the post-processing in JeeMon for another day.


Improved OOK Scope

In Software on Apr 17, 2010 at 00:01

In yesterday’s post, I used the OOK Scope to find the distinctive pulse pattern emitted by a specific sensor to be able to write a decoder for it.

Keep in mind that this is a bit like looking for a needle in a haystack: there are often over a million pulses coming in within just minutes. That’s why I had to compare the “sensor-off” baseline with the “sensor-on” pattern. And even then, you never know for sure where pulses come from and especially whether they came together in quick succession, as expected for genuine RF packet data.

So I added some filtering: instead of showing all pulses, I only look for pulse sequences with pulse widths and pulse counts in a certain range, followed by a brief period of silence (i.e. a relatively long pulse).

I also added some configurability, i.e. whether to display using a logarithmic horizontal scale, whether to “decay” old data so new pulses are weighted more heavily in the counts.

One last very convenient feature added was a “peak detector”, i.e. trying to identify the most prominent peaks in the graph and reporting their microsecond values in a status line at the bottom (the first value is a pulse count).

I didn’t implement a GUI to adjust these values – I simply set them as needed in the code and restart JeeMon:

Screen Shot 2010 04 13 at 20.58.19

Here’s the result of running the OOK decoder with these settings and waiting for a packet from the Cresta sensor:

Screen Shot 2010 04 13 at 19.52.25

Bingo: very clean peaks, as well as the actual durations of the main pulses, i.e. 392 µs, 576 µs, 880 µs, and 1056 µs. As I’ve been able to determine from previous experiments, these are just two groups of pulses: 392/576 = 0 and 880/1056 = 1. The reason is probably skew – these receivers appear to have a completely different response to carrier-start and carrier-end transitions.

Here’s a plot when leaving the OOK Scope on and accumulating for one hour:

Screen Shot 2010 04 13 at 21.05.53

There’s a bit more garbage now, with additional noise and a few more peaks being “detected”. I’ve added code so that pressing ESC clears the counts and starts from scratch – this can help isolate a specific transmission.

This version of the OOK Scope was used to establish more accurate pulse widths for the Oregon and Cresta sensors, and that’s was led to the values used in those decoders. The latest source code of the OOK Scope has been checked in, replacing the previous version. It’s still very small: under 200 lines of Tcl/Tk code.

Note how much you can do with just an OOK receiver and software: it’s like a special-purpose scope. For these experiments it’s in fact better than a storage scope or a logic analyzer, because of the custom pulse filtering!