Computing stuff tied to the physical world

Posts Tagged ‘Solar’

Electricity usage patterns

In Hardware, Software on Sep 3, 2013 at 00:01

Given that electricity usage here is monitored with a smart meter which periodically phones home to the electricity company over GPRS, this is the sort of information they get to see:

Screen Shot 2013-09-02 at 11.20.38

Consumption in blue, production in green. Since these are the final meter readings, those two data series will never overlap – ya can’t consume and produce at the same time!

I’m reading out the P1 data and transmitting it wirelessly to my HouseMon monitoring setup (be sure to check the develop branch, which is where all new code is getting added).

There’s a lot of information to be gleaned from that. The recurring 2000+ W peaks are from a 7-liter kitchen boiler (3 min every 2..3 hours). Went out for dinner on Aug 31st, so no (inductive) home cooking, and yours truly burning lots of midnight oil into Sep 1st. Also, some heavy-duty cooking on the evening of the 1st (oven dish + stove).

During the day, it’s hard to tell if anyone is at home, but evenings and nights are fairly obvious (if only by looking at the lights lit in the house!). Here’s Sep 2nd in more detail:

Screen Shot 2013-09-02 at 11.23.50

This one may look a bit odd, but that double high-power blip is the dish washer with its characteristic two heating cycles (whoops, colours reversed: consumption is green now).

Note that whenever there is more sun, there would be fewer consumption cycles, and hence less information to glean from this single graph. But by matching this up with other households nearby, you’d still get the same sort of information out, i.e. from known solar power vs. returned power from this household. Cloudy patterns will still match up across a small area (you can even determine the direction of the clouds!).

I don’t think there’s a concern for (what little) privacy (we have left), but it’s quite intriguing how much can be deduced from this.

Here’s yet more detail, now including the true house usage and solar production values, as obtained from some pulse counters, this hardware and the homePower driver:

Screen Shot 2013-09-02 at 11.52.21

There is a slight lag in smart meter reporting (a value on the P1 port every 10s). This is not an issue of the smart meter though: the DyGraphs package is only able to plot step lines with values at the start of the step, even though these values pertain to the past 10 seconds.

Speaking of which – there was a problem with the way data got stored in Redis. This is no longer an issue in this latest version of HouseMon, because I’m switching over to LevelDB, a fascinating time- and space-efficient database engine.

Solar PV production

In Hardware on Jun 2, 2013 at 00:01

This is the sort of graph I’ve been waiting for – now that there is more sun, at last:

Screen Shot 2013-05-29 at 00.28.30

(the steep increases and decreases are probably due to shadows from the other roofs)

All values were obtained from the SB5000TL inverter as 5-minute readouts over Bluetooth:

  • total delivered power on AC mains – 29 kWh for the entire day
  • total incoming power on the east-facing roof (12 panels)
  • total incoming power on the west-facing roof (10 panels)

The east-facing panels are actually slight to the north, and the west-facing ones slightly to the south. Which might explain the similar peak production levels despite the different number of panels, i.e. different “insolation” angles.

The peak values are not the highest I’ve seen so far. A cold day with light clouds recently pushed the maximum to over 4700 watts. But that was a rare event. These values are fine with me – I find such levels of solar PV output in a location well up north on this planet (52°N, to be precise) pretty amazing, in fact.

MPPT hunting

In Hardware on May 21, 2013 at 00:01

Solar panels are funny power sources: for each panel, if you draw no power, the voltage will rise to 15..40 V (depending on the type of panel), and when you short them out, a current of 5..12 A will flow (again, depending on type). My panels will do 30V @ 8A.

Note that in both cases just described, the power output will be zero: power = volts x amps, so when either one is zero, there’s no energy transfer! – to get power out of a solar panel, you have to adjust those parameters somewhere in between. And what’s even worse, that optimal point depends on the amount of sunlight hitting the panels…

That’s where MPPT comes in, which stands for Maximum Power Point Tracking. Here’s a graph, copied from www.kitenergie.com, with thanks:

MPPT_knee_diagram

As you draw more current, there’s a “knee” at which the predominantly voltage-controlled output drops, until the panel is asked to supply more than it has, after which the output voltage drops very rapidly.

Power is the product of V and A, which is equivalent to the surface of the area left of and under the current output point on the curve.

But how do you adjust the power demand to match that optimal point in the first place?

The trick is to vary the demand a bit (i.e. the current drawn) and then to closely watch what the voltage is doing. What we’re after is the slope of the line – or in mathematical terms, its derivative. If it’s too flat, we should increase the load current, if it’s too steep, we should back off a bit. By oscillating, we can estimate the slope – and that’s exactly what my inverter seems to be doing here (but only on down-slopes, as far as I can tell):

Screen Shot 2013-05-14 at 15.35.03

As the PV output changes due to the sun intensity and incidence angle changing, the SMA SB5000TL inverter adjusts the load it places on the panels to get the most juice out of ‘em.

Neat, eh?

Update – I just came across a related post at Dangerous Prototypessynchronicity!

Solar fingernails

In Hardware on Feb 11, 2013 at 00:01

A couple of weeks ago, I described a little indoor solar energy test setup, based on a couple of fingernail-sized CPC1824 solar cell chips, with 0.47 Farad supercaps for storage:

DSC_4351

It has been an interesting setup to keep running for a while, and now that 20 days have passed, it’s sort of intriguing to see how well, or badly, these solar energy cells performed. To summarise, here is what the four different test were about:

  1. One CPC1824, very lightly loaded with 20 MΩ, i.e. a 0.15..0.20 µA current draw
  2. One CPC1824, lightly loaded with 2 MΩ, i.e. a 1.5..2.0 µA current draw
  3. One CPC1824, moderately loaded with 0.2 MΩ, i.e. a 15..20 µA current draw
  4. Two CPC1824′s in parallel, moderate load with 0.2 MΩ, again 15..20 µA current draw

In addition, there is a top-up voltage cycling once per ≈ 2 hours, to prevent any the supercaps from discharging much further than about 2.7V. This is not a realistic situation if this setup were to be used for real, but I wanted to prevent a total discharge of the supercaps, to try and find out whether the supercaps would get better (i.e. less leaky) over time, as the constant charge conditions those membranes full of useable electrons.

Here are the results of 20 days, superimposed one upon the other:

solar

(click two times to see it in full scale – X axis is in minutes since midnight UTC)

  • #1 = blue, #2 = bright green, #3 = orange (dotted), #4 = red (longer dots)
  • the last day is marked in black for all four cases
  • around noon, all cells fall into the shadow, so energy generation almost stops
  • note how only the blue lines stay above 3.0V (except in the first 2..3 days)

This was a wintery mix of sunny and cloudy days, which has a huge effect on the charge / discharge curves. Looks like indoor solar with these tiny cells is not going to work…

One conclusion is that only the lightest load of 0.15..0.20 µA allows the supercap to retain a decent amount of charge through each night. On the other end of the range: with two solar cells in parallel, a 15..20 µA load might be able to stay alive for a few hours each day.

Ehm, well, just maybe – this will really depend on the startup power consumption curves!

Solar… again – first results

In Software on Jan 23, 2013 at 00:01

Sorry for keeping you in suspense after presenting yesterday’s code. I had to let this run for a few days to collect enough data worth graphing…

Some raw output:

L 15:01:00.818 usb-A40117UK OK 20 90 27 224 25 128 26 224 26
L 15:02:01.232 usb-A40117UK OK 20 68 27 224 25 128 26 224 26
L 15:03:01.663 usb-A40117UK OK 20 64 27 224 25 128 26 224 26
L 15:04:02.075 usb-A40117UK OK 20 64 27 222 25 127 26 224 26
L 15:05:02.486 usb-A40117UK OK 20 64 27 195 25 128 26 224 26
L 15:06:02.901 usb-A40117UK OK 20 64 27 192 25 123 26 224 26
L 15:07:03.314 usb-A40117UK OK 20 63 27 192 25 124 26 224 26
L 15:08:03.728 usb-A40117UK OK 20 38 27 192 25 111 26 224 26
L 15:09:04.140 usb-A40117UK OK 20 32 27 192 25 104 26 224 26
L 15:10:04.557 usb-A40117UK OK 20 32 27 169 25 99 26 224 26

And here some readings with DIO1 turned on:

L 16:01:24.894 usb-A40117UK OK 20 30 51 0 51 128 51 32 51
L 16:02:25.293 usb-A40117UK OK 20 159 51 128 51 0 52 160 51
L 16:03:25.677 usb-A40117UK OK 20 0 52 224 51 107 52 0 52
L 16:04:26.061 usb-A40117UK OK 20 64 52 55 52 192 52 96 52
L 16:05:26.461 usb-A40117UK OK 20 128 52 113 52 0 53 160 52
L 16:06:26.849 usb-A40117UK OK 20 192 52 160 52 61 53 192 52
L 16:07:27.224 usb-A40117UK OK 20 224 52 192 52 96 53 0 53
L 16:08:27.622 usb-A40117UK OK 20 0 53 237 52 128 53 32 53
L 16:09:28.011 usb-A40117UK OK 20 32 53 12 53 160 53 64 53
L 16:10:28.406 usb-A40117UK OK 20 64 53 32 53 192 53 96 53

In decimal, this is what I see:

a0: 13952 a1: 13914 a2: 14144 a3: 14017

Here are the first eight hours after sunset – no energy coming in at all, just conditioning:

a4-19jan

Top to bottom: orange = 2 MΩ, red = 20 MΩ, blue = 2-C 200 kΩ, green = 1-C 200 kΩ. Some variation probably due to resistor / supercap tolerances.

Since we’re measuring half the voltage of the supercaps, you can see that they have all reached around 2.8V at this point. The interesting bit will be to see whether the voltage ever rises in the time between DIO1 “on” cycles – indicating a charge surplus!

Here’s the next 24 hours, only the 2 and 20 MΩ loads benefit from this cloudy winter day:

a4-20jan

Another day, some real sunlight, not enough yet to survive the next night, even w/ 20 MΩ:

a4-22

Note that the only curves which hold any promise, are the ones which can permanently stay above that hourly on/off cycle, since that DIO-pin top-up won’t be there to bail us out when using these solar cells as a real power source.

I’ll leave it for now – and will collect data for some more days, or perhaps weeks if there’s any point with these tiny solar cells. Will report in due time … for now: patience!

PS. Note that these fingernail-sized CPC1824 chips are a lot more than just some PV material in an SOIC package. There appears to be a switching boost regulator in there!

Solar… again – the code

In Software on Jan 22, 2013 at 00:01

With the hardware ready to go, it’s time to take that last step – the software!

Here is a little sketch called slowLogger.ino, now in JeeLib on GitHub:

Screen Shot 2013-01-19 at 16.20.50

It’s pretty general-purpose, really – measure 4 analog signals once a minute, and report them as wireless packet. There are a couple of points to make about this sketch:

  • The DIO1 pin will toggle approximately once every 64 minutes, i.e. one hour low / one hour high. This is used in the solar test setup to charge the supercaps to about 2.7V half of the time. The charge and discharge curves can provide useful info.

  • The analog channel is selected by doing a fake reading, and then waiting 100 ms. This sets the ADC channel to the proper input pin, and then lets the charge on the ADC sample-and-hold capacitor settle a bit. It is needed when the output impedance of the signal is high, and helps set up a more accurate voltage in the ADC.

  • The analog readings are done by summing up each value 32 times. When dividing this value, you get an average, which will be more accurate than a single reading if there is noise in the signal. By not dividing the value, we get the maximum possible amount of information about the exact voltage level. Here, it helps get more stable readings.

As it turns out, the current values reported are almost exactly 10x the voltage in millivolts (the scale ends up as 32767 / 3.3), which is quite convenient for debugging.

Having said all this, you shouldn’t expect miracles. It’s just a way to get minute-by-minute readings, with hopefully not too many fluctuations due to noise or signal spikes.

Tomorrow, some early results!

Solar… again – setup

In Software on Jan 21, 2013 at 00:01

With the purpose out of the way, it’s time start building.

It’s all a big hack, and since I didn’t plan the board layout, it all ended up being hard to hookup to a JeeNode, so I had to tack on a Proto Board:

DSC_4351

Those solar cells are tiny! – if they don’t work, I’ll switch to more conventional bigger ones.

On the back, some resistors and diodes:

DSC_4352

I used a JeeNode USB (about 60 µA consumption in power-down, due to the extra FTDI chip), but am powering it all via a 3x AA battery pack to get full autonomy. The idea is to place this thing indoor, facing south through a window:

DSC_4353

Tomorrow, the code…

Solar… again

In Hardware on Jan 20, 2013 at 00:01

These dark and cold winter days are not really effective for solar energy: the entire month of January will probably not generate more power energy than two peak days in July!

Still, it’s a good baseline to try things with. And one of the experiments I haven’t given up on is making nodes run off solar power, using a supercap to hold the charge. Maybe they’ll not last through the night, but that’s fine – there are still various uses (especially outdoor) where being able to run during daytime with nodes that never need to have their batteries changed would be really nice.

In previous attempts, I’ve always immediately tried to power the actual node, but now I’d like to try something simpler: a solar cell, a supercap, and a resistor as load. Like this:

JC's Grid, page 61

I’m using a tiny solar cell by Clare again, the CPC1824, with the following specs:

Screen Shot 2013-01-19 at 15.28.51

Not much, but then again, it’s a cell which is just the size of a fingernail. As SOIC-16 package, and with the specs of the available current next to it:

Screen Shot 2013-01-19 at 15.28.28   Screen Shot 2013-01-19 at 15.29.26

In fact, I’d like to try this out with 4 different resistive loads:

  • one cell, 2x R = 20 MΩ = 0.2 µA current draw at full output
  • one cell, 2x R = 2 MΩ = 2 µA current draw at full output
  • one cell, 2x R = 200 KΩ = 20 µA current draw at full output
  • two cells in paralel, 2x R = 200 KΩ = 20 µA current draw at full output

There may be a flaw in this approach, in that the leakage of the supercap could completely overshadow the current draw from the resistors. But my hope is that supercaps get better over time when kept charged. Hmmm… not sure it applies if they run down every night.

So the second part of the idea, is to alternate solar cell use and dumb charging – just to measure how that affects output voltage over time. One hour, DIO will be on, and put the supercap on about 2.7V, the other hour it’ll be off and the solar cell takes over. With a bit of luck, the output voltage changes might show a pattern, right?

I think it’s worth a try and have made a setup with 4x the above – more tomorrow…

Switching with a lower voltage

In Hardware on Nov 10, 2012 at 00:01

The SMA Bluetooth relay described yesterday has to switch the power to the RN-42 module using an I/O pin on the ATmega. Currents are fairly small: up to about 50 mA.

I tried directly powering the RN42 from two I/O pins in parallel, but it looks like they don’t have enough current drive capacity for this purpose. So the task is to find a simple way to switch on power somehow.

The simplest solution would seem to be a P-MOSFET in the “high side” supply, i.e. between PWR and the RN-42′s supply pin, but there is a problem: PWR will be somewhere between 3.3 and 5V (actually it’s more like between 3.6 and 4.0V with the 3xAA Eneloop batteries I’m using), but the I/O pin on the ATmega won’t be more than 3.3V – since the ATmega sits behind a 3.3V voltage regulator. I tried the P-MOSFET, before realising that it’d always be driven on – the I/O pin voltage is sufficiently low to switch the MOSFET on, even with a logic “1″ – not good!

MOSFETs are driven by voltage whereas transistors are driven by current, so an obvious thing to try next is to use a PNP transistor in more or less the same configuration. Voltage differences wouldn’t be so critical, if no current flows. Also, there’s the extra base-to-emitter voltage drop or so that each normal transistor has. Still, a simple PNP transistor might switch on if the difference in voltage is large enough – this can be overcome with a PNP Darlington transistor, which is simply two PNP transistors, cascaded in a certain way. The property of these things – apart from their high amplification (hFE) – is that you need to drive the base with a slightly larger voltage. A lower voltage in this case, with PNP types. Could also have used two discrete PNP transistors.

Here’s the circuit:

Screen Shot 2012 11 07 at 15 15 47

And sure enough, it works. I happened to have an SMD “BCV 28″ lying around:

DSC 4238

The 10 kΩ resistor in series with the base limits the drive current to under 1 mA – more than enough to drive the Darlington into saturation, i.e. the state where the collector-to-emitter voltage drop is at its lowest.

That’s it. Every 5 minutes, a reading arrives on the central JeeLink, as shown by JeeMon:

Screen Shot 2012 11 07 at 15 21 56

Drat, cloudy again! Oh well, just the usual gray November day…

Using watchdog resets

In AVR, Hardware, Software on Nov 9, 2012 at 00:01

The Bluetooth readout node running the “smaRelay” code is ready to go:

DSC 4237

As mentioned yesterday, I’ve decided to take the easy way out and completely power down the Bluetooth module and go through a full powerup/connect/readout cycle about once every 5 minutes.

The advantage for me of a battery-powered unit, is that I don’t have to locate this thing near a power outlet – it can be placed out of sight, unobtrusively doing its work.

I seem to have developed an allergy for power cables and wall warts all over the place…

The power on/off logic held a little surprise, about which I’ll report tomorrow.

Here’s is the new part of the updated smaRelay.ino sketch:

Screen Shot 2012 11 07 at 14 27 33

Quite a different use of the watchdog here:

  • on powerup, go into low-power mode and wait for 5 minutes
  • prepare the watchdog to perform a reset in 8 seconds
  • power up Bluetooth, connect to the SMA, and read out some values
  • then power down Bluetooth and power up the RFM12 radio
  • send out a data packet over RF12
  • lastly, turn the radio off and power down
  • let the watchdog do the reset and make this sketch start over

This approach has as “benefit” that it’ll fail gracefully: even if anything goes wrong and things hang, the hardware watchdog will pull the ATmega out of that hole and restart it, which then starts off again by entering an ultra-low power mode for 5 minutes. So even if the SMA is turned off, this sketch won’t be on more than about 1% of the time.

Here’s the energy consumption measurement of an actual readout cycle:

SCR80

The readings are a bit noisy – perhaps because I had to use 1 mV/div over a 1 Ω resistor (the 10 Ω used before interfered too much with this new power-switching code).

As you can see, the whole operation takes about 4 seconds. IOW, this node is consuming 153 milli-Coulombs every 300 seconds. That’s 0.5 mC/sec, or 0.5 mA on average. So the estimated lifetime on 3x AA 1900 mAh Eneloops is 3800 hours – some 5 months.

Update – The first set of batteries lasted until March 18th, 2013 – i.e. over 4 months.

Good enough for now. Deploy and forget. Onwards!

Relaying SMA data as RF12 packets

In Hardware, Software on Nov 7, 2012 at 00:01

Yesterday’s post shows how to read out the SMA solar PV inverter via Bluetooth. The idea was to install this on the Mac Mini JeeLabs server, which happens to be in range of the SMA inverter (one floor below). But that brings up a little dilemma.

Install a potentially kernel-panic-generating utility on the main JeeLabs server? Nah…

I don’t really care whether this issue gets fixed. I don’t want to have the web server go down for something as silly as this, and since it’s a kernel panic, there’s no point trying to move the logic into a Linux VM – the problem is more likely in Apple’s Bluetooth / WiFi stack, which will get used no matter how I access things.

The alternative is to implement a little “SMA Relay” using a JeeNode with a Bluetooth module attached to it, which drives the whole protocol and then broadcasts results periodically over RF12. That way I can figure out and control it.

I tried to use the SoftwareSerial library built into the newer Arduino IDE releases, but ran into problems with lost bytes – even with the software UART speed down to 19200 baud.

So I ended up first debugging the code on an Arduino Mega, which has multiple hardware UARTs and allows good ol’ debugging-with-print-statements, sending out that debug info over USB, while a separate hardware UART deals with all communication to and from the Bluetooth module.

Once that worked, all debugging statements were removed and the serial Bluetooth was switched to the main (and only) UART of the JeeNode. The extra 10 kΩ R’s in the RX and TX lines allow hooking up a USB BUB for re-flashing. The BUB will simply overrule, but needs to be removed to try things out:

DSC 4236

(the Bluetooth module I used in this setup is Sparkfun’s BlueSMiRF Silver)

Next step was to add a little driver to JeeMon again, the aging-but-still-working Tcl-based home monitoring setup at JeeLabs. Fairly straightforward, since it merely needs to extract a couple of 16-bit unsigned ints from incoming packets:

Screen Shot 2012 11 06 at 10 39 10

And sure enough, data is coming in (time in UTC):

Screen Shot 2012 11 06 at 10 32 35

… and properly decoded:

Screen Shot 2012 11 06 at 10 33 08

The ATmega code has been added as example to JeeLib on GitHub, see smaRelay.ino.

I’m still debugging some details, as the Arduino sketch often stops working after a few minutes. I suspect that some sort of timeout and retry is needed, in case Bluetooth comms get lost occasionally. Bluetooth range is only a few meters, especially with the re-inforced concrete floors and walls here at JeeLabs.

Anyhow, it’s a start. Suggestions and improvements are always welcome!

Accessing the SMA inverter via Bluetooth

In Software on Nov 6, 2012 at 00:01

As pointed out in recent comments, the SMA solar PV inverter can be accessed over Bluetooth. This offers various goodies, such as reading out the daily yield and the voltage / power generation per MPP tracker. Since the SB5000TL has two of them, and my panels are split between 12 east and 10 west, I am definitely interested in seeing how they perform.

Besides, it’s fun and fairly easy to do. How hard could reading out a Bluetooth stream be?

Well, before embarking on the JeeNode/Arduino readout, I decided to first try the built-in Bluetooth of my Mac laptop, which is used by the keyboard and mouse anyway.

I looked at a number of examples out there, but didn’t really like any of ‘em – they looked far too complex and elaborate for the task at hand. This looked like a wheel yearning to be re-invented… heh ;)

The trouble is that the protocol is fully packetized, checksummed, etc. The way it was set up, this seems to also allow managing multiple inverters in a solar farm. Nothing I care about, but I can see the value and applicability of such an approach.

So what it comes down to is to send a bunch of hex bytes in just the right order and with just the right checksums, and then pulling out a few values from what comes back by only decoding what is relevant. Fortunately, the Nanode SMA PV Monitor project on GitHub by Stuart Pittaway already did much of this (and a lot more).

I used some templating techniques (in good old C) which are probably worth a separate post, to generate the proper data packets to connect, initialise, login, and ask for specific results. And here’s what I got – after a lot of head-scratching and peering at hex dumps:

    $ make
    cc -o bluesman main.cpp
    ./bluesman
    ha!
    logged in
    daily yield: 2886 Wh @ Sun Jun 29 15:38:03     394803
    total generated power: 75516 W
    AC power: 432 W
    451f: DC voltage = 181.00 V
    451f: DC voltage = 142.62 V
    DC voltage
    251e: DC power = 252 W
    251e: DC power = 177 W
    DC power
    done

The clock was junk at the time, but as you can see there are some nice bits of info in there.

One major inconvenience was that my 11″ MacBook Air tended to crash every once in a while. And in the worst possible way: hard kernel panic -> total reboot needed -> all unsaved data lost. Yikes! Hey Apple, get your stuff solid, will ya – this is awful!

The workaround appears to be to disable wireless and not exit the app while data is coming in. Sounds awfully similar to the kernel panics I can generate by disconnecting an FTDI USB cable or BUB, BTW. Needless to say, these disruptions are extremely irritating while trying to debug new code.

Next step… getting this stuff to work on an ATmega – stay tuned!

Solar top-up, full sun

In Hardware on Jun 9, 2012 at 00:01

Yesterday’s setup described a circuit with the JeeNode running on an AA Power Board and a little solar cell to top up the charge when there was sufficient light.

Since today was a warm day here with lots of sunlight, I thought it’d be nice to establish an outdoor baseline:

DSC 3302

From left to right (see how useful it is to have a whole bunch of multimeters?):

  • the voltage of the solar cell is 2.7V right now
  • the current supplied by it is 0.76 mA
  • the current drawn from the AA cell is 20 µA
  • IOW: less than an hour of sunlight is enough for a day

This is running the radioBlip2 sketch (including the recent survival tweaks), with the same modified JeeNode (no regulator, 100 µF cap) as used in many recent experiments here at JeeLabs.

Note that these values add up reasonably well:

  • the 2.7V from the solar cell ends up being distributed as follows: 0.65V forward drop over the 1N4148 diode, 0.75V voltage drop over the 1 kΩ resistor, and 1.3V over the (almost fully-charged) Eneloop
  • battery draw is 20 µA, and I’ve independently measured about 4.8 µA idle current draw from the JeeNode (i.e. w/o the MCP1702 regulator), so losses and efficiencies are actually quite good

Here’s the same setup in the shade (still bright sunlight outside) – sorry for the bad readouts:

DSC 3303

The cell voltage now drops to 2.0V and the current it supplies is down to ≈ 0.14 mA.

For comparison, some indoor charge currents from the solar cell:

  • near the white LED strips at my workbench: 60 µA
  • behind the window, but not in the sun: 80 µA
  • behind the window, in (modest) sunlight: 400 µA

With a Room Board attached and a permanent indoor setup, these figures will change, but it all looks promising!

Eneloop with solar top-up

In Hardware on Jun 8, 2012 at 00:01

Here’s another idea in the continuing search for long autonomous JeeNode run times:

JC s Grid page 19

The basic circuit is an Eneloop AA(A) cell, driving the AA Power Board to boost its voltage to 3.3V. There’s a 1 kΩ in series with the battery, as well as a Schottky diode to limit the voltage drop to about 0.3V during times “high” current consumption. I’ll explain why later on.

On the input side is a really simple circuit: a solar cell with a series diode, simply feeding the Eneloop battery when there is solar energy available.

The solar cell I’m using is that same 4.5V @ 1 mA cell I’ve been using all the time in my recent experiments. It is surprisingly good at generating some electricity indoor, even behind the coated double-glazing we have here.

The 1 kΩ resistor in series will let me measure the actual current flowing across it – 1 µA will read out as a 1 mV drop (that Ohm’s law again, of course!). So with a charging current of up to say 200 µA, this conveniently matches the 200 mV lowest range of most multimeters. And 0.2V is not a dramatic voltage drop, so the circuit should continue to work – almost the same as without those measurement resistors included.

A similar 1 kΩ resistor has also been inserted between the battery and the AA Power Board, but in this case we have to be more careful: a JeeNode will briefly pull 25 mA while in transmit mode, and the 1 kΩ resistor would effectively shut off input power with such currents. So I added a diode with minimal forward drop in parallel – it’ll interfere with my readings, but I’m really only interested in the ultra-low power consumption phases.

Here’s my “flying circus” concoction:

DSC 3301

I’ve added some wires to easily allow clipping various meters on.

Now, clearly, 4V is way over the 1.3V nominal of an Eneloop battery. But here’s why this setup should still work:

  • this solar cell is so feeble that its voltage will collapse when drawing more than a fraction of a milliamp
  • solar cells may be shorted out – doing so switches them from constant-voltage to constant current mode

As for the Eneloop, my assumption is that it doesn’t really care much about being overcharged at these very low power levels. In the worst case of continuous sunshine for days on end, it’ll be fed at most 1 mA, even when full. That will probably just lead to a tiny amount of internal heating.

So let’s try and predict how this will work out, in terms of battery lifetimes…

I’ll take a JeeNode + Room Board as reference point, which draws about 60 µA continuous, on average (50 µA for the PIR, which needs to remain always-on). That’s on the 3.3V side of the AA Power board. So with a (somewhat depleted) AA battery @ 1.1V, than means the battery would have to supply 180 µA with a perfect boost regulator.

Unfortunately, perfect boost regulators are a bit hard to get. The chip on the AA Power Board does reasonably well, with about 20 µA idle and about 60..70% conversion efficiency. Let’s just batch those together as 50% efficiency, then the continuous power draw for a Room Node would be about 360 µA. Let’s round that up to 400 µA.

An Eneloop AA battery has about 1900 mAh capacity, but it loses some energy due to self-discharge. The claim is that it retains 85% over 2 years, so this battery can effectively give us about 1600 mAh of power.

The outcome of this little exercise, is that we ought to get some 4000 hours run-time out of one fully-charged AA cell, i.e. 166 days, almost six months. Not bad, but a little lower than I would have liked to see.

If the solar cell were to generate 4 hours per day @ 0.5 mA, when averaged over an entire year (that might be optimistic), then that’s 4 x 365 x 0.5 = 730 mAh. That comes down to an average current of 83 µA.

IOW, roughly one fifth of the total power needs could be supplied by the solar cell. Not enough for total autonomy, but still, it’s a start. Note that most of these last figures were pulled out of thin air at this stage: I don’t know yet!

Yet another idea would be to add an extra diode from the solar cell straight to the JeeNode +3V pin. IOW, when there is sufficient sunlight, we off-load the boost circuit altogether and charge up a capacitor of say 100..1000 µF on the JeeNode itself. No more losses, other than the AA Power Board’s quiescent current consumption.

It’s about survival

In AVR, Hardware, Software on May 29, 2012 at 00:01

When running off solar power, ya’ gotta deal with lack of (sun-) light…

As shown in a recent post, a 0.47F supercap appears to have enough energy storage to get through the night, at least when assuming that the day before was sunny and that the nights are not too long.

There are still a couple of issues to solve. One which I won’t go into yet, is that the current approach won’t start up properly when there is only a marginal power budget to begin with. That’s a hard problem – some other time!

But another tactic to alleviate this problem, is to try and sail through a low-power situation by reducing power consumption until (hopefully) more energy becomes available again, later on.

Here’s my first cut at implementing a “survival strategy”, using the radioBlip2 sketch:

Screen Shot 2012 05 15 at 14 00 12

It’s all in the comments, really: when power is low, try to avoid sending packets, since turning on the transmitter is by far the biggest power “hog”. And when power is really low, don’t even measure VCC – just slow down even more in maximally efficient sleep mode – I’ve set the times to 5 and 60 minutes. The 1-hour sleep being a last effort to get through a really rough night…

But I’ve also added some kamikaze logic: when running low, you don’t just want the sketch to go into sleep mode more and more and finally give up without having given any sign of life. So instead, when the sketch is about to decide whether it should send a packet again, it checks whether the voltage is really way too low after what was supposedly a long deep-sleep period. If so, and before power runs out completely, it will try to send out a packet anyway, in the knowledge that this might well be its last good deed. That way, the central node might have a chance to hear this final swan song…

The thresholds are just a first guess. Maybe there are better values, and maybe there is a better way to deal with the final just-about-to-die situation. But for now, I’ll just try this and see how it goes.

One last point worth mentioning: all the nodes running this sketch can use the same group and node ID, because they are transmit-only. There is never a need to address packets sent towards them. So the BLIP_ID inside the payload is a way to still disambiguate incoming packets and understand which exact node each one came from.

Re-using the same node ID is useful in larger setups, since the total number of IDs in a group is limited to 30.

I’ll do some tests with the above logic. Let’s hope this will keep nodes alive in long and dark winter days nights.

Re-thinking solar options

In AVR, Hardware, Musings on May 28, 2012 at 00:01

So will it ever be possible to run a JeeNode or JeeNode Micro off solar power?

Well, that depends on many things, really. First of all, it’s good to keep in mind that all the low-power techniques being refined right now also apply to battery consumption. If a 3x AA pack ends up running 5 or even 10 years without replacement, then one could ask whether far more elaborate schemes to try and get that supercap or mini-lithium cell to work are really worth the effort.

One fairly practical option would be a single rechargeable EneLoop AA battery, plus a really low-power boost circuit (perhaps I need to revisit this one again). The idea would be to just focus on ultra-low power consumption, and move the task of charging to a more central place. After all, once the solar panels on the roof of JeeLabs get installed (probably this summer), I might as well plug the charger into AC mains here and recharge those EneLoop batteries that way!

Another consideration is durability: if supercaps only last a few months before their capacity starts to drop, then what’s the point? Likewise, the 3.4 mAh Lithium cell I’ve been playing with is rated at “1000 cycles, draining no more than 10% of the capacity”. With luck, that would be about three years before the unit needs to be replaced. But again – if some sort of periodic replacement is involved anyway, then why even bother generating energy at the remote node?

I’m not giving up yet. My KS300 weather station (868 MHz OOK, FS20′ish protocol) has been running for over 3 years now, I’ve never replaced the 3x AA batteries it came with – here’s the last readout, a few hours ago:

     :41   KS300 ookRelay2 humi             77
     :41   KS300 ookRelay2 rain             469
     :41   KS300 ookRelay2 rnow             0
     :41   KS300 ookRelay2 temp             18.2
     :41   KS300 ookRelay2 wind             0

And the original radioBlip node is also running just fine after 631 days:

    1:32   RF12-868.5.3 radioBlip age       631
    1:32   RF12-868.5.3 radioBlip ping      852330

Even the JeeNode Micro running on a CR2023 coin cell is still going strong after 4 months:

    1:42   RF12-868.5.18 radioBlip age      139
    1:42   RF12-868.5.18 radioBlip ping     188449

So ultra-low power is definitely doable, even with an Arduino-compatible design.

No worries – I’ll keep pushing this in various directions, even if just for the heck of it…

Reverse diode current

In Hardware on May 27, 2012 at 00:01

After measuring the forward voltage drop over a diode, I should also have measured the reverse leakage current, i.e. how much current the diode lets through when it’s supposed to be blocking. I never did until now, because I couldn’t detect any current in a quick check I did a while back. Time to build a better setup – here’s what I used:

JC s Grid page 17

The voltmeter’s own 10 MΩ or so internal resistance will skew the readings by 10%, but that’s no big deal.

It turns out that the reverse leakage current is pretty small when applying 5V:

  • 1N4004 – a high power diode: 1.3 mV = 1.3 nA
  • 1N4148 – a low power diode: 3.4 mV = 3.4 nA
  • BAT34 – a Schottky diode: 50 mV = 50 nA

That’s nanoamps, i.e. milli-milli-milli-amps. The Schottky diode does indeed leak a tad more than the others. Here are the specs of that BAT34 diode – note that the reverse current could even be used as temperature sensor!

Screen Shot 2012 05 14 at 17 15 55

FWIW, I found a minuscule “RB751S” SMD Schottky diode, about 1 mm long, which does a bit better at 7.0 nA:

DSC 3221

It was quite a challenge to get some wires soldered onto it. I used the core of 30 AWG Kynar “wirewrap” wire:

DSC 3222

Anyway – the BAT34 is good enough: 50 nA leakage is acceptable while dealing with circuits which consume µA’s.

Through the night on a supercap!

In Hardware on May 26, 2012 at 00:01

Yeay! – The JeeNode made it through the night on a 0.47F supercap, for the first time ever at JeeLabs:

Screen Shot 2012 05 15 at 10 59 19

Sorry for the awkward / missing scale, here’s some context:

  • vertical is voltage: 50 = 2V, 100 = 3V, 150 = 4V, 200 = 5V
  • blue is VCC before sending, green is VCC after sending
  • graph runs from 11:45 yesterday to 10:45 the next morning, i.e. 23 hours
  • that’s two VCC measurements and one packet transmission every minute

The supercap had been charged by the solar cell for 3 days, no load. When connecting the JeeNode (BOD set to 1.8V, on-board 100 µF i.s.o. regulator, already running), I placed it in a cardboard box to block out the light:

  • the first upward blip is at 12:45, during 5 minutes of exposure to sunlight
  • then back into the box until 18:30, depleting the supercap for a few hours
  • after that, the node was kept in the light to try and charge up enough for the night
  • at 20:00, the charge had gone up to 4.42V and 3.86V, respectively
  • at around 6:30 the next morning, the lowest point was reached: 3.44V and 2.88V
  • from then on, the cell started charging again from the morning light (no direct sunlight yet)
  • looks like about 10% of the packets never arrived (probably mostly due to collisions)

At noon, the cap voltage had risen to 4.9V (note that the RFM12B is now operating above its official 3.8V max).

So there you have it: one packet per minute powered by solar energy, harvested indoor near a window.

Update – FWIW, this setup lasted a second day, but then it died again… we’re not done yet!

First solar results

In AVR, Hardware on May 16, 2012 at 00:01

Some first results from trying to run a JeeNode off a 24 x 32 mm indoor solar cell…

In each of the cases described below, I’m using a JeeNode without regulator and with 100 µF cap hooked up, with fuses and settings as described in this post. The cap should have enough energy to cushion the dip from a small packet transmission. I’m using the latest radioBlip2 sketch, which now sends out the following 7-byte payload:

Screen Shot 2012 05 14 at 13 33 17

The benefit of this version, is that the sketch reports not just the battery level but also how far the battery level drops after sending out a packet once a minute. That value is sent out in the next packet, so it always lags.

To get started, I connect the JeeNode to a BUB, which charges the 100 µF cap to 5V (and runs the RFM12B slightly above spec). Then I disconnect and hook it up to the solar setup. This way I don’t have to deal with startup problems yet – which is an entirely different (and tricky) problem.

Yesterday’s elaborate setup didn’t get very far, unfortunately. Two different runs gave me just a few packets:

    L 09:16:01.571 usb-A600dVPp OK 17 1 0 0 0 1 209 0
    L 09:18:07.445 usb-A600dVPp OK 17 3 0 0 0 1 86 51
    L 09:19:10.308 usb-A600dVPp OK 17 4 0 0 0 1 86 50

    L 09:24:12.477 usb-A600dVPp OK 17 1 0 0 0 1 206 0
    L 09:25:15.707 usb-A600dVPp OK 17 2 0 0 0 1 86 210

Values are 20 mV steps, offset by 1V – the actual battery voltage is: 1 + 0.02 * X (where X is the reported value).

In the above runs, the battery is 86 (2.72V) before sending, and 50 (2.00V) after. That’s pretty close to the edge, I’m not sure why the drop is so large.

Another test with a 0.47 Farad supercap, charged for about 3 days to get the charge “deep” into the supercap, seems to fare a little better:

    L 09:43:06.943 usb-A600dVPp OK 17 19 0 0 0 1 210 52
    L 09:44:10.771 usb-A600dVPp OK 17 20 0 0 0 1 175 210
    L 09:45:14.549 usb-A600dVPp OK 17 21 0 0 0 1 175 146
    L 09:46:18.339 usb-A600dVPp OK 17 22 0 0 0 1 175 147
    L 09:47:22.100 usb-A600dVPp OK 17 23 0 0 0 1 175 147
    ...

That’s 4.50V and 3.94V before and after transmission, respectively. But a 0.47F supercap has a lot less energy in it than that 3.4 mAh Lithium cell used in the first tests above, so it’ll probably run down a lot faster.

After one hour, voltages drop to 4.28V and 3.72V. Two hours: 4.14V and 3.60V. Five hours: 3.92V and 3.36V. I’m not sure this will work, unless the node sends less at night perhaps or always restarts reliably the next day.

To be continued…

New solar setup

In Hardware on May 15, 2012 at 00:01

Time for another experiment, this time combining my small solar panel with the 3.4 mAh Lithium battery which seems to work so well. The circuit I’m going to try is as follows:

JC s Grid page 16

Here’s the construction, cozily attached to the back of the solar cell:

DSC 3128

Same solar cell, I think it can supply up to 4.5V @ 1 mA in full sunlight.

The tricky bit is that the rechargable lithium cell needs to be treated with care. For maximum life, it needs to be hooked up to a voltage source between 2.8V and 3.2V, and the charge current has to be limited.

Note that the 1 kΩ resistor is put in series with the battery not only to charge it, but also when taking charge out of it. Seems odd, but that’s the way the datasheet and examples show it. Then again, with a 10 µA current draw the voltage drop and losses are only about 10 mV. A diode bypass could be added later, if necessary.

The diode after the regulator has the nice effect of dropping the 3.3V output to an appropriate value, as well as blocking all reverse current flow. There is no further circuitry for the regulator, since I don’t really care what it does when there is too much or too little power coming from the solar cell. Let’s assume it’s stable without caps.

It all looks a bit wasteful, i.e. linearly regulating the incoming voltage straight down to 3.3V regardless of PV output levels and discarding the excess. But given that this little 3V @ 3.4 mAH battery has already supported a few days of running time when fully charged, maybe it’s still ok.

I’ll let this charge for a day or two.

Forward voltage drop on a diode

In Hardware on May 14, 2012 at 00:01

With all this tinkering with solar panels, little batteries, supercaps, etc, you often need to prevent current from leaking away. The usual approach is to insert a diode into the circuit.

Diodes conduct current in one direction and block the current in the opposite direction.

Well, that’s the theory anaway. In real life, diodes only conduct current once the voltage is above a certain level, and they tend to leak minute amounts of current when blocking the reverse voltage.

For ultra-low power use and the low voltage levels involved, you need to be careful about the type of diode used. A regular 1N4148 silicon diode has a forward drop of about 0.65V, quite a bit when supplies are 2..3V!

The Schottky diode has a much lower voltage drop. It’s usually specified as 0.3..0.4V, but it really depends on the amount of current passed through it.

To see the properties of the BAT43 Schottky diode I’ve been using, I created this simple test setup:

JC s Grid page 18

A 10 Hz “sawtooth” voltage is used to create a signal rising from -3V to +3V in a linear fashion, 10 times a second. This means that the current through the 100 kΩ resistor will go from -30 µA to +30 µA. We can then watch the voltage over the diode, and how it goes from a blocking to a conducting state:

SCR45

The yellow trace is the sawtooth signal applied to the circuit. The blue trace is the voltage over the diode. Note the difference in vertical scale.

You can see that with negative voltages, the diode just blocks. As it should. With positive voltages up to 1.2V, i.e. a current up to 12 µA, the voltage drop over the diode is under 0.15V, rising slowly to about 0.175V at 30 µA.

Changing the resistor to 10 kΩ to increase the current by a factor of 10, we get this:

SCR49

Same picture, different scale. At 300 µA, the voltage drop is now about 0.23V, and it’s fairly flat at that point.

For comparison, here’s a run-off-the-mill 1N4148 “standard” silicon diode:

SCR50

Again: different vertical scale. About 0.53V at 300 µA. More importantly, it’s already 0.4V at 60 µA.

So when losses matter at low voltages and low currents, it’s better to use Schottky diodes.