Computing stuff tied to the physical world

Carrier detection

In AVR, Software on Dec 26, 2009 at 00:01

Wireless communication is a complex process. The ISM bands used by the RFM12B module get used in various ways – some quite simplistic. For “serious” use, what you want is to avoid transmissions interfering with each other – which means at most one transmitter should be active at any given time for a specific frequency band.

Easier said than done. This is what CSMA/CA is all about. It’s quite similar to ethernet: you listen to the “ether” and wait until there is no carrier before starting to send yourself. If everyone does so, then there will be fewer “collisions” – i.e. messed up packets.

CSMA/CA isn’t perfect. It doesn’t scale all that well if there are lots of nodes, all trying to find a free slot to send their packets out. There is always a non-zero probability of collision, when two nodes decide at nearly the same time that there is no-one else transmitting. And then, BOOM! … as they say.

One solution for that is another acronym: TDMA. Basic idea: have all the nodes agree to only send in specific time slots allocated to them. This requires a central coordinator, as well as pretty accurately keeping track of time (which is non-trivial with RC-based watchdog timers for sleep modes used with low-power nodes!).

In the ISM band, at least the 868 MHz one used in Europe, a simpler solution is used: keep the air-waves more or less free. The rule is that each transmitting node should send no more than 1% of the time, on average. With one or two dozen nodes and a bit of randomness in timing, the idea is that collisions will be relatively rare.

I recently added the 1% rule to the easy transmission mechanism in the RF12 driver (for the 868 MHz band only). So with the rf12_easy…() calls, adhering to the 1% rule is now automatic.

The 1% rule is a very simple system, yet it works surprisingly well. I’ve got over a dozen nodes around the house, sending out packets whenever they feel like it. The off-the-shelf commercial weather station nodes I use are very simplistic – they just send, ignore collisions, and send new data again a minute or two later. Those nodes probably don’t even have receive capability.

The RFM12B transceiver module in the JeeNode is slightly more sophisticated, in that communication can take place in both directions. So the receiver can send back an “ack” packet, and the originating node will have some idea of whether its last data packet ever made it to the destination (note that ack’s can get lost as well – but that’s another story).

Still – the RF12 driver used in JeeNodes is just as careless as the other nodes: it starts sending the moment it feels like it – except if a packet for its own net group is currently being received. Sending packets with the RF12 driver can still easily mess up whatever is currently going on in the air.

Well, as of today, things will improve a bit further. I’ve extended the RF12 driver code to look at the RSSI status bit before starting to transmit. If a carrier is detected, even one that isn’t being recognized by the RFM12B, then transmission will be delayed a bit. Here is the latest code in the RF12.cpp driver:

Screen shot 2009-12-21 at 02.16.28.png

This isn’t perfect – nothing ever is – because most nodes will be polling very frequently and then start to send right after the carrier drops. So the chance increases that nodes two and three will both try sending when node one finishes. But let’s assume that the RSSI signal doesn’t drop to 0 for all nodes at exactly the same time. If that turns out to be insufficient, a timer-based exponential back-off mechanism can be added later.

And there is a substantial benefit: nodes will no longer mess up packets which are currently “on the air”. As more nodes are being added around here, I expect this change to cause less degradation due to collisions.

In summary: the RF12 driver is a very simple system. No CSMA/CA, no TDMA. There are definitely limits as to what it can be used for. There are some severe limits on how much data it can send, given that (on 868 MHz) each node can only send up to 1% of the time, but this is also why such a simple approach is actually quite effective. And why the RF12 driver is still just a few Kb on an 8-bit ATmega, leaving lots of room for application specific code. I happen to think that the RF12 approach strikes a pretty decent balance between simplicity and effectiveness – and I’m always open for suggestions on how to take this further.

  1. JC,

    Did you update the drivers in the code repository already ?


  2. The RSSI check is a good addition. Now you have the first half of CSMA/CA.

    But unless there is a mechanism that prevents nodes from sending the moment RSSI falls, it is possible that this will cause more collisions than without it. As you noted, the RSSI detection will tend to synchronize the nodes.

    RSSI doesn’t have to drop exactly at the same time for this to be an issue, as the nodes will spend some time switching the radio from receive to transmit. When they transmit, they won’t know if some other node has started to transmit during the “turn around time”.

  3. Good point. I’ll look into adding a randomized 3..66 ms timer in there. Or perhaps 3..10 ms random + exponential back-off.

  4. What if you waited 1ms times the ID code of the radio or something like that ? Then they would not sync up.

    • Indeed – what you’re proposing amounts to “voluntary TDMA”, i.e. everyone using their own time slot. With random delays, I’d also use the ID as seed for the sequence. Only difference I can think of is that random + back-off might use smaller delays, but it might not be worth the extra logic. I’ll look into it, thanks.

  5. Note that the max duty cycle depends on the 868 subband that’s being used. There are also bands that have a 0,1% or 10% duty cycle instead of 1%. For the Netherlands (and probably the rest of EU) the details can be found here in table 1:

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